Background: Currently, no treatment guidelines are available for posttransplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence. We retrospectively evaluated the rate of clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from serum according to various treatment regimens in two large Korean liver transplantation centers. Methods: Between 1996 and 2008, HBV recurred in 59 patients among 933 HBV liver recipients (6.3 %). Patients with HBV recurrence were divided into four groups according to their treatment: group L (lamivudine-based therapy n = 21) and group N [new nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-based therapy, n = 38]. Intravenous hepatitis B immunoglobulin (ivHBIG) had been simultaneously administered to 10 patients in group L and 26 patients in group N. The mean posttransplant follow-up duration and time to HBV recurrence were 69 (14-152) months and 37 (3-120) months. Results: Overall, 22 patients (37.3 %) showed seronegative conversion of HBsAg for a median 8 months after treatment (range 1-15 months). The seroclearance rate was significantly higher in group N (n = 20, 52.6 %) than in group L (n = 2, 9.5 %) (p < 0.000). The time to seroconversion did not differ between group L (7 months, range 5-16) and group N (7 months, range 1-15) (p = 0.428). Subgroup analysis showed that the HBsAg seroconversion rate was much higher for patients given combined ivHBIG and new NAs (15/26 patients, 58.0 %) than the others (p = 0.006). Conclusions: Seroclearance of HBsAg could be achieved using new NAs in half of the patients after posttransplant HBV recurrence. Combined ivHBIG may add a synergistic effect to new NAs for clearing HBsAg.