This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP) on dental implant osseointegration. Orthognathic surgery was set as an intervention for RAP, and a multicentre cohort study of two groups was undertaken. Group O included patients with single implant placement at least 4 months after orthognathic surgery and functional loading for more than 1 year, while controls (Group C) were without any major surgery. Clinical and radiographic assessments of implants, including changes in marginal bone levels, were analysed at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Bivariate analysis of two groups with propensity score matching was performed. After propensity score matching, all 10 confounding variables had acceptable standardised difference scores (<20%), indicating that the matching procedure had efficiently balanced the two groups. Following the propensity score adjustment, the marginal bone loss was significantly higher in Group O than the control at 6 months (1.66 ± 1.05 mm vs 0.59 ± 0.64 mm, P < 0.001) and 12 months (2.30 ± 1.27 mm vs 0.82 ± 0.78 mm, P < 0.001). Compared to Group C, subjects in Group O had a higher incidence of peri-implant mucositis and implantitis (11.8% vs 1.5%, P = 0.033). Impaired osseointegration of dental implants was associated with orthognathic surgery. Special considerations for peri-implant soft and hard tissue stability should be addressed to obtain ideal treatment results and prognosis for patients who have had prior orthognathic surgery.
- dental implant
- marginal bone loss
- orthognathic surgery
- propensity score matching
- regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP)