Pendrin is an apical anion exchanger found in type B and nonA-nonB intercalated cells that is involved in bicarbonate secretion. The purpose of this study was to establish the origin and fate of pendrin-positive intercalated cells in the mouse kidney. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that pendrinpositive cells first appeared in the connecting tubule at embryonic day 14 (E14) and subsequently in the medullary collecting duct at E18. Most of the pendrin-positive cells in the connecting tubule were nonA-nonB intercalated cells, wheras those in the medullary collecting duct were type B intercalated cells. In the cortical collecting duct, pendrin-positive cells appeared in the inner part at day 4 after birth and in the outer part at day 7. Pendrin-positive cells gradually disappeared by apoptosis from the inner part of the medullary collecting duct two weeks after birth. Using 5-bromo-2′deoxy-uridine (BrdU) to follow cell proliferation, we determined that selective proliferation of pendrin-positive intercalated cells does not occur; instead, these cells may arise from undifferentiated precursor cells from separate foci, one in the connecting tubule and one in the collecting duct.