Organic photoredox catalysts with a long excited-state lifetime have emerged as promising alternatives to transition-metal-complex photocatalysts. This paper explains the effectiveness of using longlifetime photoredox catalysts for organic transformations, focusing on the structures and photophysics that enable long excited-state lifetimes. The electrochemical potentials of the reported organic, long-lifetime photocatalysts are compiled and compared with those of the representative Ir(III)- and Ru(II)-based catalysts. This paper closes by providing recent demonstrations of the synthetic utility of the organic catalysts. 1 Introduction 2 Molecular Structure and Photophysics 3 Photoredox Catalysis Performance 4 Catalysis Mediated by Long-Lifetime Organic Photocatalysts 4.1 Photoredox Catalytic Generation of a Radical Species and its Addition to Alkenes 4.2 Photoredox Catalytic Generation of a Radical Species and its Addition to Arenes 4.3 Photoredox Catalytic Generation of a Radical Species and its Addition to Imines 4.4 Photoredox Catalytic Generation of a Radical Species and its Addition to Substrates Having C≡X Bonds (X=C, N) 4.5 Photoredox Catalytic Generation of a Radical Species and its Bond Formation with Transition Metals 4.6 Miscellaneous Reactions of Radical Species Generated by Photoredox Catalysis 5 Conclusions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledges the financial support of the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Numbers NRF-2019R1A2C2003969, NRF-2015M3D1A1070639, and NRF-2019R1A4A1029052) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information, and Communication Technology and Future Planning.Naional ReeachFoundationofKoeaNRF2019R1A2C2003969National ReseachFoundaionofKoea(NRF-2015M3D1A1070639)Natonal ReseachFoundaionofKoeaNRF2019R1A4A1029052MinisyofSience, Infomaton, andCommunicatonTechnologyandFuuePlanning■■notfound■■()
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- long lifetime
- organic photocatalysts
- organic transformations
- photoinduced electron transfer
- photoredox catalysis