Organelle-Targeted Photosensitizers for Precision Photodynamic Therapy

Rui Wang, Xingshu Li, Juyoung Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations


Subcellular organelles are the cornerstones of cells, and destroying them will cause cell dysfunction and even death. Therefore, realizing precise organelle targeting of photosensitizers (PSs) can help reduce PS dosage, minimize side effects, avoid drug resistance, and enhance therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Organelle-targeted PSs provide a new paradigm for the construction of the next generation of PSs and may provide implementable strategies for future precision medicine. In this Review, the recent targeting strategies of different organelles and the corresponding design principles of molecular and nanostructured PSs are summarized and discussed. The current challenges and opportunities in organelle-targeted PDT are also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19543-19571
Number of pages29
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number17
StatePublished - 5 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J.Y. thanks the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2012R1A3A2048814). X.L. thanks the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 22078066).

Publisher Copyright:


  • organelle-targeted
  • photodynamic therapy
  • photosensitizer
  • precision
  • subcellular localization


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