Subcellular organelles are the cornerstones of cells, and destroying them will cause cell dysfunction and even death. Therefore, realizing precise organelle targeting of photosensitizers (PSs) can help reduce PS dosage, minimize side effects, avoid drug resistance, and enhance therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Organelle-targeted PSs provide a new paradigm for the construction of the next generation of PSs and may provide implementable strategies for future precision medicine. In this Review, the recent targeting strategies of different organelles and the corresponding design principles of molecular and nanostructured PSs are summarized and discussed. The current challenges and opportunities in organelle-targeted PDT are also presented.
- photodynamic therapy
- subcellular localization