Orbital Gating Driven by Giant Stark Effect in Tunneling Phototransistors

Eunah Kim, Geunwoo Hwang, Dohyun Kim, Dongyeun Won, Yanggeun Joo, Shoujun Zheng, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Pilkyung Moon, Dong Wook Kim, Linfeng Sun, Heejun Yang

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Abstract

Conventional gating in transistors uses electric fields through external dielectrics that require complex fabrication processes. Various optoelectronic devices deploy photogating by electric fields from trapped charges in neighbor nanoparticles or dielectrics under light illumination. Orbital gating driven by giant Stark effect is demonstrated in tunneling phototransistors based on 2H-MoTe2 without using external gating bias or slow charge trapping dynamics in photogating. The original self-gating by light illumination modulates the interlayer potential gradient by switching on and off the giant Stark effect where the dz2-orbitals of molybdenum atoms play the dominant role. The orbital gating shifts the electronic bands of the top atomic layer of the MoTe2 by up to 100 meV, which is equivalent to modulation of a carrier density of 7.3 × 1011 cm–2 by electrical gating. Suppressing conventional photoconductivity, the orbital gating in tunneling phototransistors achieves low dark current, practical photoresponsivity (3357 AW–1), and fast switching time (0.5 ms) simultaneously.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106625
JournalAdvanced Materials
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
E.K., G.H. contributed equally to this work. E.K., G.H., L.S., and H.Y. conceived the project; E.K., D.K., and D.-W.K. conducted Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM); P.M. provided theoretical interpretation; G.H., D.W., Y.J., S.Z. prepared MoTe2 samples and devices. This work was supported by the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics, under Project No. SRFC-MA1701-01, by the KAIST-funded Global Singularity Research Program for 2021, and by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Project No. 2021M3H4A1A03054856. E.K. was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Project No. NRF-2020R1I1A1A01067910. L.S. acknowledges the financial support by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. Z210006). P.M. acknowledges the support by National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12074260), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Shanghai Natural Science Grants, Grant No. 19ZR1436400), and the NYU-ECNU Institute of Physics at NYU Shanghai.

Funding Information:
E.K., G.H. contributed equally to this work. E.K., G.H., L.S., and H.Y. conceived the project; E.K., D.K., and D.‐W.K. conducted Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM); P.M. provided theoretical interpretation; G.H., D.W., Y.J., S.Z. prepared MoTe samples and devices. This work was supported by the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics, under Project No. SRFC‐MA1701‐01, by the KAIST‐funded Global Singularity Research Program for 2021, and by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Project No. 2021M3H4A1A03054856. E.K. was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Project No. NRF‐2020R1I1A1A01067910. L.S. acknowledges the financial support by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. Z210006). P.M. acknowledges the support by National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12074260), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Shanghai Natural Science Grants, Grant No. 19ZR1436400), and the NYU‐ECNU Institute of Physics at NYU Shanghai. 2

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

Keywords

  • giant Stark effect
  • photoconductivity
  • photogating
  • tunneling
  • van der Waals heterostructures

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