Optimization of tenocyte lineage-related factors from tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells using response surface methodology

Soon Sun Kwon, Hyang Kim, Sang Jin Shin, Seung Yeol Lee

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2 Scopus citations


Background: In order to optimize the tenogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), researchers should consider various factors. However, this requires testing numerous experimental settings, which is costly and time-consuming. We aimed to assess the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) on the tenogenesis of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) using response surface methodology (RSM). Methods: Bone marrow and tonsillar tissue were collected from four patients; mononuclear cells were separated and treated with 5 or 10 ng/mL of TGF-β3. A full factorial experimental design with a categorical factor of 0 was employed to study the effect of tension based on T-MSCs. Eighty-four trials were fitted with RSM and then used to obtain mathematical prediction models. Results: Exposure of T-MSCs and BM-MSCs to TGF-β3 increased the expression of scleraxis (SCX), tenomodulin (TNMD), decorin, collagen I, and tenascin C. Expression of most of these factors reached a maximum after 2-3 days of treatment. The model predicted that the values of the tenocyte lineage-related factors assessed would be significantly increased at 2.5 days of culture with 2.7 ng/mL of TGF-β3 for T-MSCs and at 2.3 days of culture regardless of TGF-β3 concentration for BM-MSCs. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the RSM prediction of the culture time necessary for the tenogenic differentiation of T-MSCs and BM-MSCs under TGF-β3 stimulation was similar to the experimentally determined time of peak expression of tenocyte-related mRNAs, suggesting the potential of using the RSM approach for optimization of the culture protocol for tenogenesis of MSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 17 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 The Author(s).


  • Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
  • Design of experiments
  • Response surface methodology
  • Tenocyte
  • Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells


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