Optical and surface probe investigation of secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 films grown by electrochemical deposition

Gee Yeong Kim, William Jo, Kee Doo Lee, Hee Su Choi, Jin Young Kim, Hae Young Shin, Trang Thi Thu Nguyen, Seokhyun Yoon, Beom Soo Joo, Minseon Gu, Moonsup Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Abstract Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films were grown by electrochemical deposition, and we measured the work function of the as-grown and of the KCN-etched CZTS surfaces by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy with incident laser wavelengths of 488.0 and 632.8 nm, respectively, and the results indicate that a secondary phase formed at different depths. The KPFM measurements can discriminate phase uniformity at the nano-scale. Secondary phases, such as Cu2-xS (0<x<1), ZnS, and MoS2, were identified on the as-grown surface while Cu2-xS was removed from the KCN-etched surface. The KCN-etched CZTS absorption layer was measured to have a 5.0% conversion efficiency. Owing to the low cost of electrochemical deposition, it is desirable to obtain high tailored CZTS films can be obtained with the robust surface characteristics of a uniform work function with a single phase.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7639
Pages (from-to)10-18
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - Aug 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work done at KIST was supported by the KIST internal fund and the New & Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Grant funded by the Korea Government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 20113020010040 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • CuZnSnS
  • Electrochemical deposition
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy
  • Raman scattering spectroscopy
  • Secondary phases
  • Work function


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