There is evidence that interface recombination in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells contributes to the open-circuit voltage deficit. Our hybrid density functional theory calculations suggest that electron-hole recombination at the Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS interface is caused by a deeper conduction band that slows electron extraction. In contrast, the bandgap is not narrowed for the Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS interface, consistent with a lower open-circuit voltage deficit.
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