OCT3 promoter haplotype is associated with metformin pharmacokinetics in Koreans

Eun Young Kwon, Jae Yong Chung, Hyo Jin Park, Bo Min Kim, Minsuk Kim, Ji Ha Choi

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13 Scopus citations


Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is expressed in various organs in humans and plays an important role in the transport of organic cations and drugs including metformin. In this study, we identified genetic variations of the OCT3 promoter and functionally characterized each variant by in vitro assays. Next, the association between the functional haplotype of the OCT3 promoter and pharmacokinetics of metformin was evaluated. In our study population, 7 variations and 2 major haplotypes were identified, of which H2 haplotype yielded a significantly higher luciferase activity than did the wild type. Two variants of H2, c.-1603G > A and c.-1547T > G, yielded significantly lower luciferase activities, whereas the luciferase activity of another variant, c.-29G > A, was significantly higher. Two transcription factors, Sp1 and USF1, were involved in the regulation of OCT3 transcription. Analysis of clinical data revealed that 25 subjects, either homozygous or heterozygous for H2, showed increased AUCinf and Cmax by 17.2% and 15.9%, respectively [P = 0.016 and 0.031, GMR (90% CI) = 1.17 (1.06–1.29) and 1.17 (1.04–1.31), respectively], compared to the 20 subjects in the control group. Our study suggests that an OCT3 promoter haplotype affects the pharmacokinetics of metformin in Koreans as well as the OCT3 transcription rate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16965
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018

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© 2018, The Author(s).


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