Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is expressed in various organs in humans and plays an important role in the transport of organic cations and drugs including metformin. In this study, we identified genetic variations of the OCT3 promoter and functionally characterized each variant by in vitro assays. Next, the association between the functional haplotype of the OCT3 promoter and pharmacokinetics of metformin was evaluated. In our study population, 7 variations and 2 major haplotypes were identified, of which H2 haplotype yielded a significantly higher luciferase activity than did the wild type. Two variants of H2, c.-1603G > A and c.-1547T > G, yielded significantly lower luciferase activities, whereas the luciferase activity of another variant, c.-29G > A, was significantly higher. Two transcription factors, Sp1 and USF1, were involved in the regulation of OCT3 transcription. Analysis of clinical data revealed that 25 subjects, either homozygous or heterozygous for H2, showed increased AUCinf and Cmax by 17.2% and 15.9%, respectively [P = 0.016 and 0.031, GMR (90% CI) = 1.17 (1.06–1.29) and 1.17 (1.04–1.31), respectively], compared to the 20 subjects in the control group. Our study suggests that an OCT3 promoter haplotype affects the pharmacokinetics of metformin in Koreans as well as the OCT3 transcription rate.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government, (MSIT) (2010-0027945) and a grant from the National Project for Personalized Genomic Medicine, Ministry for Health and Welfare, Korea (A111218-PG03).
© 2018, The Author(s).