The high-latitude climate system contains complicated, but largely veiled physical feedback processes. Climate predictions remain uncertain, especially for the Northern High Latitudes (NHL; north of 60°N), and observational constraint on climate modeling is vital. This study estimates local radiative feedbacks for NHL based on the CERES/Terra satellite observations during March 2000–November 2014. The local shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative feedback parameters are calculated from linear regression of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere on surface air temperatures. These parameters are estimated by the de-seasonalization and 12-month moving average of the radiative fluxes over NHL. The estimated magnitudes of the SW and the LW radiative feedbacks in NHL are 1.88 ± 0.73 and 2.38 ± 0.59 W m−2 K−1, respectively. The parameters are further decomposed into individual feedback components associated with surface albedo, water vapor, lapse rate, and clouds, as a product of the change in climate variables from ERA-Interim reanalysis estimates and their pre-calculated radiative kernels. The results reveal the significant role of clouds in reducing the surface albedo feedback (1.13 ± 0.44 W m−2 K−1 in the cloud-free condition, and 0.49 ± 0.30 W m−2 K−1 in the all-sky condition), while the lapse rate feedback is predominant in LW radiation (1.33 ± 0.18 W m−2 K−1). However, a large portion of the local SW and LW radiative feedbacks were not simply explained by the sum of these individual feedbacks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the GEMS program of the Ministry of Environment, Korea and the Eco Innovation Program of KEITI (2012000160003) and the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program, under Grant KMIPA2015-6110. Authors Y.-S. Choi, J. H. Jiang, and H. Su acknowledge the support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). W. Kim acknowledges the support of the APEC Climate Center. The authors thank the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) and ERA-Interim reanalysis data production teams for providing their data.
© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- High-latitude climate feedback
- Local radiative feedback
- Observational estimates of feedback
- Radiative kernel