Novel oxidative modifications in redox-active cysteine residues

Jaeho Jeong, Yongsik Jung, Seungjin Na, Jihye Jeong, Eunsun Lee, Mi Sun Kim, Sun Choi, Dong Hae Shin, Eunok Paek, Hee Yoon Lee, Kong Joo Lee

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70 Scopus citations

Abstract

Redox-active cysteine, a highly reactive sulfhydryl, is one of the major targets of ROS. Formation of disulfide bonds and other oxidative derivatives of cysteine including sulfenic, sulfinic, and sulfonic acids, regulates the biological function of various proteins. We identified novel low-abundant cysteine modifications in cellular GAPDH purified on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) by employing selectively excluded mass screening analysis for nano ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray- quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry, in conjunction with MOD i and MODmap algorithm. We observed unexpected mass shifts (Δm = -16, -34, +64, +87, and +103 Da) at redox-active cysteine residue in cellular GAPDH purified on 2D-PAGE, in oxidized NDP kinase A, peroxiredoxin 6, and in various mitochondrial proteins. Mass differences of -16, -34, and +64 Da are presumed to reflect the conversion of cysteine to serine, dehydroalanine (DHA), and Cys-SO2-SH respectively. To determine the plausible pathways to the formation of these products, we prepared model compounds and examined the hydrolysis and hydration of thiosulfonate (Cys-S-SO2-Cys) either to DHA (Δm = -34 Da) or serine along with Cys-SO2-SH (Δm = -64 Da). We also detected acrylamide adducts of sulfenic and sulfinic acids (+87 and +103 Da). These findings suggest that oxidations take place at redox-active cysteine residues in cellular proteins, with the formation of thiosulfonate, Cys-SO2-SH, and DHA, and conversion of cysteine to serine, in addition to sulfenic, sulfinic and sulfonic acids of reactive cysteine.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular and Cellular Proteomics
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011

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