Not All Forms of Independence Are Created Equal: Only Being Independent the “Right Way” Is Associated With Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction

Daniela Moza, Smaranda Ioana Lawrie, Laurențiu P. Maricuțoiu, Alin Gavreliuc, Heejung S. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Past research has found a strong and positive association between the independent self-construal and life satisfaction, mediated through self-esteem, in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures. In Study 1, we collected data from four countries (the United States, Japan, Romania, and Hungary; N = 736) and replicated these findings in cultures which have received little attention in past research. In Study 2, we treated independence as a multifaceted construct and further examined its relationship with self-esteem and life satisfaction using samples from the United States and Romania (N = 370). Different ways of being independent are associated with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the two cultures, suggesting that it is not independence as a global concept that predicts self-esteem and life satisfaction, but rather, feeling independent in culturally appropriate ways is a signal that one’s way of being fits in and is valued in one’s context.

Original languageEnglish
Article number606354
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work carried out for this paper by DM received financial support from “Entrepreneurial Education and Professional Counseling for Social and Human Sciences PhD and Postdoctoral Researchers to ensure knowledge transfer” (ATRiUM) Project, co-financed from European Social Fund through Human Capital Programme 2014–2020, POCU/380/6/13/123343.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Moza, Lawrie, Maricuțoiu, Gavreliuc and Kim.

Keywords

  • culture
  • independence
  • life satisfaction
  • self-construal
  • self-esteem

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