Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and CT characteristics of T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy failure. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 304 patients with NSCLC who underwent rebiopsy after first-line EGFR-TKI therapy was conducted. Rebiopsy methods included CT-or fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsies (n = 105), endobronchial US-or bronchofibroscopy-guided biopsies (n = 66), pleural fluid analysis (n = 47), other solid organ biopsies (n = 43), US-guided axillary or supraclavicular lymph node biopsies (n = 31), and cerebrospinal fluid analysis (n = 12). CT findings at the initial diagnosis and rebiopsy were analyzed. Progression-free survival, the duration from the start of TKI therapy to rebiopsy, and survival were calculated. Results: At rebiopsy, 144 (47.4%) patients were T790M mutation positive. The percentages of T790M mutation-positive NSCLCs were similar in 106 patients with rebiopsy of the lungs (53 [50%] of 106) and in 77 patients with rebiopsy of the primary lung lesions (36 [47%] of 77). T790M mutation positivity was associated with peripheral tumors (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; P = .01), pleural tag (OR, 5.0; P < .001), and air bronchogram (OR, 4.0; P = .006) at CT after TKI failure. The duration from the start of TKI therapy to rebiopsy was longer in T790M mutation-positive than in T790M mutation-negative patients (20.5 vs 13.6 months; P < .001). Cumulative survival from the time of rebiopsy to the last follow-up was significantly longer in patients with T790M mutation-positive lung cancers (P = .014). However, median survival time after rebiopsy was not statistically different between patients with and those without T790M mutation. Conclusion: Peripheral tumor location with vascular convergence, the presence of a pleural tag, and air bronchogram of lung lesions at CT at the time of rebiopsy were significantly associated with T790M mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer after first-line epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy failure.