Nodal signals to Smads through Cripto-dependent and Cripto-independent mechanisms

Chang Yeol Yeo, Malcolm Whitman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

310 Scopus citations


Nodal ligands are essential for the patterning of chordate embryos. Genetic evidence indicates that EGF-CFC factors are required for Nodal signaling, but the molecular basis for this requirement is unknown. We have investigated the role of Cripto, an EGF-CFC factor, in Nodal signaling. We find that Cripto interacts with the type I receptor ALK4 via the conserved CFC motif in Cripto. Cripto interaction with ALK4 is necessary both for Nodal binding to the ALK4/ActR-IIB receptor complex and for Smad2 activation by Nodal. We also find that Nodal can inhibit BMP signaling by a Cripto-independent mechanism. Inhibition appears to be mediated by heterodimerization between Nodal and BMPs, indicating that antagonism between Nodal and BMPs can occur at the level of dimeric ligand production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)949-957
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Cell
Issue number5
StatePublished - 25 May 2001


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