As the prevalence and life expectancy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continue to increase, the importance of effective detection and intervention for the complications of T2DM, especially neurocognitive complications including cognitive dysfunction and dementia, is receiving greater attention. T2DM is thought to influence cognitive function through an as yet unclear mechanism that involves multiple factors such as hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and vascular disease. Recent developments in neuroimaging methods have led to the identification of potential neural correlates of T2DM-related neurocognitive changes, which extend from structural to functional and metabolite alterations in the brain. The evidence indicates various changes in the T2DM brain, including global and regional atrophy, white matter hyperintensity, altered functional connectivity, and changes in neurometabolite levels. Continued neuroimaging research is expected to further elucidate the underpinnings of cognitive decline in T2DM and allow better diagnosis and treatment of the condition.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by grants A112009 (J.E. Kim) and A121080 (I.K.L.) from the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Global Top 5 program, Ewha Womans University (I.K.L.).
© 2014 Korean Endocrine Society.
- Cognition disorders
- Diabetes mellitus
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Type 2