Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), a semi-natural compound from bitter orange, is an intense sweetener. The anti-obesity effects of NHDC and its glycosidic compound, NHDC-O-glycoside (GNHDC), were investigated. C57BLKS/J db/db mice were supplemented with NHDC or GNHDC (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 weeks. Body weight gain, subcutaneous tissues, and total adipose tissues (sum of perirenal, visceral, epididymal, and subcutaneous adipose tissue) were decreased in the NHDC and GNHDC groups. Fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis, and adipogenesis-related genes were decreased, whereas β-oxidation and fat browning-related genes were up-regulated in the sweetener groups. Furthermore, both sweeteners suppressed the level of triacylglycerol accumulation, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, and proinflammatory cytokines in the 3T3-L1 cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was also down-regulated, and AMP-acttvated protein kinase (AMPK) was phosphorylated in the treatment groups. These results suggest that NHDC and GNHDC inhibited subcutaneous fat and lipid accumulation by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and AMPK-related lipogenesis and fat browning.
- Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone
- Subcutaneous adipose tissue