Carbon nitride (CN), a 2D material composed of only carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which are linked by strong covalent bonds, has been used as a metal-devoid and visible-light-active photocatalyst owing to its magnificent optoelectronic and physicochemical properties including suitable bandgap, adjustable energy-band positions, tailor-made surface functionalities, low cost, metal-free nature, and high thermal, chemical, and mechanical stabilities. CN-based materials possess a lot of advantages over conventional metal-based inorganic photocatalysts including ease of synthesis and processing, versatile functionalization or doping, flexibility for surface engineering, low cost, sustainability, and recyclability without any leaching of toxic metals from photocorrosion. Carbon nitrides and their hybrid materials have emerged as attractive candidates for CO2 capture and its reduction into clean and green low-carbon fuels and valuable chemical feedstock by using sustainable and intermittent renewable energy sources of sunlight and electricity through the heterogeneous photo(electro)catalysis. Here, the latest research results in this field are summarized, including implementation of novel functionalized nanostructured CNs and their hybrid heterostructures in meeting the stringent requirements to raise the efficiency of the CO2 reduction process by using state-of-the-art photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, and feedstock reactions. The research in this field is primarily focused on advancement in the synthesis of nanostructured and functionalized CN-based hybrid heterostructured materials. More importantly, the recent past has seen a surge in studies focusing significantly on exploring the mechanism of their application perspectives, which include the behavior of the materials for the absorption of light, charge separation, and pathways for the transport of CO2 during the reduction process.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.N.T., G.S., and I.Y.K. contributed equally to this work. S.N.T. and I.Y.K. acknowledge the Australian Research Council (ARC) for the Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA) (DE190100965 and DE170101069). A.V. is grateful to ARC for the future fellowship (FT100100970) and to the University of Newcastle for the start-up grants. The authors are also grateful to SABIC Pty Ltd for the award of the research project.
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- CN nanosheets
- CO adsorption
- CO reduction
- g-CN hybrids
- nanostructured carbon nitrides