Injectable inorganic/organic composite systems consisting of well-defined mesocrystals (4-8 μm) of calcium phosphate and polypeptide thermogel significantly enhance the osteogenic differentiation of the tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs). Compared to composite systems incorporating nanoparticles (10-100 nm) or pure hydrogel systems, osteogenic biomarkers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic protein 2, and osteocalcin are highly expressed at both the mRNA level and the protein level in the mesocrystal composite systems. ALP activity of differentiated cells is also significantly higher in the mesocomposite systems compared to the nanocomposite systems or the pure hydrogel systems. The mesocomposite systems provide not only hard surfaces for binding the cells/proteins by the inorganic mesocrystals but also a soft matrix for holding the cells by the hydrogel. Through the current research, (1) a novel method of preparing mesocrystals is developed, (2) TMSCs are proved as a new resource of stem cells, and (3) the mesocomposite systems are proved to be a promising tool in controlling stem cell differentiation. (4) Finally, the research emphasizes the significance of mesoscience as a new perspective of science in controlling cell and material interfaces.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
- Calcium phosphate
- Osteogenic differentiation
- Polypeptide thermogels
- Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells, stem cells