NADPH oxidase 4 is required for the generation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host defense against Toxoplasma gondii infection

Ji Hye Kim, Jina Lee, Su Jin Bae, Yeeun Kim, Byung Joon Park, Jae Won Choi, Jaeyul Kwon, Guang Ho Cha, Heon Jong Yoo, Eun Kyeong Jo, Yun Soo Bae, Young Ha Lee, Jae Min Yuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) are an important family of catalytic enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate the regulation of diverse cellular functions. Although phagocyte Nox2/gp91phox is closely associated with the activation of host innate immune responses, the roles of Nox family protein during Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection have not been fully investigated. Here, we found that T. gondii-mediated ROS production was required for the upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) mRNA and protein levels via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling in macrophages. Interestingly, MIF knockdown led to a significant increase in the survival of intracellular T. gondii in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Moreover, Nox4 deficiency, but not Nox2/gp91phox and the cytosolic subunit p47phox, resulted in enhanced survival of the intracellular T. gondii RH strain and impaired expression of T. gondii-mediated MIF in BMDMs. Additionally, Nox4-deficient mice showed increased susceptibility to virulent RH strain infection and increased cyst burden in brain tissues and low levels of MIF expression following infection with the avirulent ME49 strain. Collectively, our findings indicate that Nox4-mediated ROS generation plays a central role in MIF production and resistance to T. gondii infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6361
JournalScientific Reports
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2017

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