Multidimensional structure and measurement invariance of school engagement

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Abstract

This study examined the multidimensional structure and measurement invariance of a school engagement instrument using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), bifactor CFA (BCFA), and bifactor ESEM (BESEM). Participants consisted of 1731 students in Grades 9 - 11 from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development in the United States. The use of the CFA, ESEM, BCFA, and BESEM models was expected to provide more insight into the cross-loading and hierarchical structures of school engagement. We found empirical evidence to support the (a) tripartite factor structure of school engagement, (b) existence of cross-loadings and hierarchical structures, (c) measurement invariance across gender (male vs female) and race (European American vs African American), and (d) expected latent means differences by gender.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-33
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of School Psychology
Volume89
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Bifactor models
  • Exploratory structural equation modeling
  • Measurement invariance
  • Multidimensionality
  • School engagement
  • United States

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