Multidimensional Measures of Militarization (M3): A Global Dataset

Markus Bayer, Aurel Croissant, Roya Izadi, Nikitas Scheeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this article, we present the novel M3-dataset. This global dataset brings together 30 existing and newly developed indicators and a total of 140,000 observations on three dimensions of material, political, and societal militarization from 1990 to 2020. We introduce a novel, multidimensional concept of militarization, explain the construction of the dataset, data-collection process, and the measures taken to ensure the validity and reliability of the data. We illustrate the usefulness of the dataset for researchers by analyzing for the first time the impact of military policing as one aspect of societal militarization on violence and human rights violations at the global level. We conclude by discussing the significance of the M3 dataset and outlining how scholars in different fields and with various research interests, including (de-)democratization, armed conflict, and human development, can benefit from incorporating this dataset into their studies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArmed Forces and Society
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023.


  • civil–military relations
  • material
  • military policing
  • political and societal militarization


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