The study of biological histamine (HA) requires probes capable of ratiometric photoluminescence detection of HA. We discovered that a monocycloplatinated complex having two solvento ligands ([Pt(2-(2-naphthyl)quinolinate)(NCCH3)2]ClO4) could produce ratiometric phosphorescence responses to HA in aerated aqueous solutions buffered to pH 7.4. The HA response was characterized with a hypsochromic shift of an emission peak wavelength from 635 to 567 nm. The corresponding phosphorescence intensity ratio (i.e., I567 nm/I635 nm) increased from 0.26 to 1.90. Spectroscopic and spectrometric investigations indicated an occurrence of spontaneous displacement of the labile CH3CN ligands with HA. An independently prepared HA adduct supported this notion. The ratiometric phosphorescence responses to HA were highly tolerant to other biological stimuli, including changes in pH and the presence of biometals and biological Lewis bases such as amino acids, nucleosides, biothiols, neurotransmitters, and small molecular metabolites. Of note was the high selectivity toward HA over common biological ligands, including histidine, cysteine, and homocysteine, which was ascribed to tighter HA binding. Our phosphorescence measurements employing Boc-protected derivatives of HA suggested that the bis-chelate motif involving imidazolyl and terminal amino groups was crucial for eliciting the ratiometric phosphorescence signaling. Finally, the bioimaging utility of the HA probe was validated using RAW 264.7 macrophages that were exogenously supplemented with HA or stimulated with thapsigargin to enrich intracellular HA. Ratiometric phosphorescence imaging microscopy experiments demonstrated the ability of the probe for monitoring intracellular HA uptake. In addition, photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy techniques could be applied for visualization of HA within the RAW 264.7 cells, because the HA binding elongated the photoluminescence lifetime. Our study demonstrated the promising utility of inner-sphere interactions of phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes for detection of biological HA.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the MSIP of Korea through the GFP (Grant CISS-2012M3A6A6054204). The authors acknowledge Dr. Seung-Hae Kwon and Taemin Wi at the Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, for microscopic experiments.
© 2018 American Chemical Society.