Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages in Korea

Ji Yoon Lee, Meehye Kim, Jongdae Kim, Hobin Im, Young Suk Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Formaldehyde occurs naturally in food and alcoholic beverages. Formaldehyde and alcoholic beverages can cause various health problems, including irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, respiratory problems, and skin rashes. Alcoholic beverage samples (N = 236) were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The highest average concentrations were detected in fruit wines (1.71 µg/g), followed by wines (1.15 µg/g), cheongju (0.95 µg/g), soju (0.85 µg/g), takju (0.64 µg/g) and beers (0.61 µg/g). We assessed the exposure and risk assessment to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages based on the monitoring data for the general population and consumers in Korea using various schemes for point estimation. The daily intakes of formaldehyde for the general population and consumers were estimated to be 83 µg and 1202 µg, respectively. The mean hazard indexes (HI) for the general population and consumers in Korea were 0.009 and 0.132, respectively. On the other hand, the mean hazard indexes (HI) for the general population and consumers in Korea were 0.009 and 0.132, respectively. The exposure to formaldehyde in these alcoholic beverages for the Korean population was shown to be of low concern, but it is necessary to monitor the level of formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages and continuously conduct exposure assessment for consumers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-248
Number of pages12
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords

  • Formaldehyde
  • liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • monitoring
  • risk assessment

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