The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide epidemic (1-3). Considering the growing number of the aging population and the increasing incidence of diabetes and obesity, which are the main causes of CKD (4, 5), the increased prevalence of CKD will likely not come to an end. A large proportion of patients with CKD, who are under current treatment modalities comprising of tight blood pressure, glucose, and lipid control and the use of renin angiotensin system blockers, often progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and eventually require dialysis or kidney transplantation. It is therefore imperative to understand the exact mechanisms of CKD in order to provide effective interventions targeting CKD and eventual ESRD.
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