Preterm birth (PTB) refers to the birth of infants before 37 weeks of gestation and is a challenging issue worldwide. Evidence reveals that PTB is a multifactorial dysregulation mediated by a complex molecular mechanism. Thus, a better understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying PTB is a prerequisite to explore effective therapeutic approaches. During early pregnancy, various physiological and metabolic changes occur as a result of endocrine and immune metabolism. The microbiota controls the physiological and metabolic mechanism of the host homeostasis, and dysbiosis of maternal microbial homeostasis dysregulates the mechanistic of fetal developmental processes and directly affects the birth outcome. Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysregulation in the maternal or fetal membranes stimulates the inflammatory cytokines, which may positively progress the PTB. Although labour is regarded as an inflammatory process, it is still unclear how microbial dysbiosis could regulate the molecular mechanism of PTB. In this review based on recent research, we focused on both the pathological and therapeutic contribution of microbiota‐generated metabolites to PTB and the possible molecular mechanisms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is funded by BK21 FOUR (Fostering Outstanding Universities for Research) funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE, Korea) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF‐2020R1A2C3011850).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Molecular mechanism