Modulation Doping via a Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystalline Acceptor

Yiping Wang, Jesse Balgley, Eli Gerber, Mason Gray, Narendra Kumar, Xiaobo Lu, Jia Qiang Yan, Arash Fereidouni, Rabindra Basnet, Seok Joon Yun, Dhavala Suri, Hikari Kitadai, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Xi Ling, Jagadeesh Moodera, Young Hee Lee, Hugh O.H. Churchill, Jin Hu, Li YangEun Ah Kim, David G. Mandrus, Erik A. Henriksen, Kenneth S. Burch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional nanoelectronics, plasmonics, and emergent phases require clean and local charge control, calling for layered, crystalline acceptors or donors. Our Raman, photovoltage, and electrical conductance measurements combined with ab initio calculations establish the large work function and narrow bands of α-RuCl3 enable modulation doping of exfoliated single and bilayer graphene, chemical vapor deposition grown graphene and WSe2, and molecular beam epitaxy grown EuS. We further demonstrate proof of principle photovoltage devices, control via twist angle, and charge transfer through hexagonal boron nitride. Short-ranged lateral doping (≤65 nm) and high homogeneity are achieved in proximate materials with a single layer of α-RuCl3. This leads to the best-reported monolayer graphene mobilities (4900 cm2/(V s)) at these high hole densities (3 × 1013 cm-2) and yields larger charge transfer to bilayer graphene (6 × 1013 cm-2).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8446-8452
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Issue number12
StatePublished - 9 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Chemical Society.


  • 2D Atomic Crystals
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • Modulation Doping
  • Molecular Beam Epitaxy
  • Quantum Oscillations
  • Raman
  • RuCl


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