Modeling the power consumption of function-level code relocation for low-power embedded systems

Hayeon Choi, Youngkyoung Koo, Sangsoo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The problems associated with the battery life of embedded systems were addressed by focusing on memory components that are heterogeneous and are known to meaningfully affect the power consumption and have not been fully exploited thus far. Our study establishes a model that predicts and orders the efficiency of function-level code relocation. This is based on extensive code profiling that was performed on an actual system to discover the impact and was achieved by using function-level code relocation between the different types of memory, i.e., flash memory and static RAM, to reduce the power consumption. This was accomplished by grouping the assembly instructions to evaluate the distinctive power reduction efficiency depending on function code placement. As a result of the profiling, the efficiency of the function-level code relocation was the lowest at 11.517% for the branch and control groups and the highest at 12.623% for the data processing group. Further, we propose a prior relocation-scoring model to estimate the effective relocation order among functions in a program. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, benchmarks in the MiBench benchmark suite were selected as case studies. The experimental results are consistent in terms of the scored outputs produced by the proposed model and measured power reduction efficiencies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2354
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors.


  • Code profiling
  • Embedded systems
  • Function-level code relocation
  • Low-power
  • Prior relocation-scoring
  • Source code insertion


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