The chemical structure of a block copolymer (BCP) dictates the size, shape, and function of its self-assembled structure in solution. This direct correspondence demands precision synthesis of a specific BCP with optimized structural parameters to obtain the desired nanostructures with structural and functional complexity by solution self-assembly. Here we show that the binary blends of BCPs self-assemble into the desired nanostructure in solution by adjusting the composition of the blend. By modifying the structural parameters of a binary BCP blend through control of the composition, two BCPs sharing the repeating units in both polymer blocks coassemble into the desired structures, which range from spherical micelles to inverse cubic and hexagonal mesophases. These BCP blends not only allow the direct creation of complex periodic mesoporous structures of the desired periodicity and pore size but also provide nanostructures of unprecedented morphology by simple solution self-assembly without relying on the synthesis of correspondingly designed BCPs.