After drug administration, the drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted (ADME). Because ADME processes affect drug efficacy, various in vitro models have been developed based on the ADME processes. Although these models have been widely accepted as a tool for predicting the effects of drugs, the differences between in vivo and in vitro systems result in high attrition rates of drugs during the development process and remain a major limitation. Recent advances in microtechnology enable more accurate mimicking of the in vivo environment, where cellular behavior and physiological responses to drugs are more realistic; this has led to the development of novel in vitro systems, known as ”organ-on-a-chip“ systems. The development of organ-on-a-chip systems has progressed to include the reproduction of multiple organ interactions, which is an important step towards ”body-on-a-chip“ systems that will ultimately predict whole-body responses to drugs. In this review, we summarize the application of microtechnology for the development of in vitro systems that accurately mimic in vivo environments and reconstruct multiple organ models.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partially supported by the KIST Institutional Program (project no. 2E25590). This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015061592), KFRI (Korea Food Research Institute, grant no: E0121705), Hongik University Research Fund, and Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) and Establishment of Infrastructure for industrialization of Korean Useful Microbes (R0004073). The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest.
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- In vitro systems
- Multiple organ interaction