Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope

Sunghoon Kwon, Luke P. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


We have developed a miniature scanning confocal microscope that uses electrostatically actuated microlenses for focusing and scanning. Objective lenses, scanners, a pupil, and a pinhole of the confocal microscope are microfabricated and integrated into a volume smaller than 2 mm3 by stacking these components. Objective lenses are composed of two vertically cascaded polymer microlenses integrated into micromachined comb actuators. Raster scanning is implemented by electrostatically actuating each microlens in orthogonal directions. We have demonstrated reflection confocal imaging with 3-μm transverse resolution over a 100-μm field of view and a 0.38-mm working distance at λ = 633 nm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)706-708
Number of pages3
JournalOptics Letters
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2004


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