Microbial succession during button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production evaluated via high-throughput sequencing

Ga Hee Ban, Jin Hee Kim, Sun Ae Kim, Min Suk Rhee, Song Yi Choi, In Jun Hwang, Se Ri Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), are one of the most widely consumed mushrooms in the world. However, changes within its microbial community as it relates to the use of different raw materials and cultivation methods, as well as potential points of microbial contamination throughout the production process have not been investigated extensively. In the present study, button mushroom cultivation was investigated in each of the four stages (raw materials, composting (phase I, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ), casing, and harvesting), and samples (n = 186) from mushrooms and their related environments were collected from four distinct mushroom-growing farms (A–D) in Korea. Shifts within the bacterial consortium during mushroom production were characterized with 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The succession of bacterial communities on each farm was dependent on the raw material incorporated, aeration, and the farm environment. The dominant phyla of the compost stack at the four farms were Pseudomonadota (56.7%) in farm A, Pseudomonadota (43.3%) in farm B, Bacteroidota (46.0%) in farm C, and Bacillota (62.8%) in farm D. During the Phase Ⅰ, highly heat-resistant microbes, such as those from the phylum Deinococcota (0.6–65.5%) and the families Bacillaceae (1.7–36.3%), Thermaceae (0.1–65.5%), and Limnochordaceae (0.3–30.5%) greatly proliferated. The microbial diversity within compost samples exhibited a marked decline as a result of the proliferation of thermophilic bacteria. In the spawning step, there were considerable increases in Xanthomonadaceae in the pasteurized composts of farms C and D – both of which employed an aeration system. In the harvesting phase, beta diversity correlated strongly between the casing soil layer and pre-harvest mushrooms, as well as between gloves and packaged mushrooms. The results suggest that gloves may be a major source of cross-contamination for packaged mushrooms, highlighting the need for enhanced hygienic practices during the harvesting phase to ensure product safety. These findings contribute to the current understanding of the influence of environmental and adjacent microbiomes on mushroom products to benefit the mushroom industry and relevant stakeholders by ensuring quality production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104307
JournalFood Microbiology
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Button mushroom
  • High throughput sequencing
  • Microbiome
  • Mushroom cultivation process


Dive into the research topics of 'Microbial succession during button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production evaluated via high-throughput sequencing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this