Microbial ecology of nuts, seeds, and sprouts

M. S. Rhee, S. A. Kim, N. H. Kim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This chapter presents an overview of microbial ecology for nuts, seeds, sprouts, and their products in retail markets or food manufacturers. It discusses quantitative and qualitative approaches used to assess pathogenic bacterial contamination of nuts, seeds, and sprouts and also analyzes the published data about microbiological changes occurring in seeds and sprouts during production in a real manufacturing plant. Edible nuts were generally believed to contain few microorganisms due to their inherent dry characteristics, which provide unfavorable environments for bacterial survival and growth. Seeds used for sprouting can have significant levels of endemic bacteria. Contamination levels and the prevalence of bacteria in seeds used for sprout production. Edible nuts, seeds, and sprouts harbor considerable numbers of microorganisms, and the prevalence of food-borne pathogens has been reported in a number of publications. Molds and their toxic metabolites and food-borne pathogenic bacteria are a major concern for the food safety of edible nuts and seeds.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationModeling the Microbial Ecology of Foods
Subtitle of host publicationQuantitative Microbiology in Food Processing
PublisherWiley Blackwell
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781118823071
ISBN (Print)9781118756423
StatePublished - 6 Oct 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Dried nuts
  • Edible seeds
  • Food manufacturers
  • Food-borne pathogens
  • Microbial ecology
  • Qualitative approaches
  • Retail markets
  • Sprout production
  • Toxic metabolites


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