At present, mass production of basic and valuable commodities is dependent on linear petroleum-based industries, which ultimately makes the depletion of finite natural reserves and accumulation of non-biodegradable and hazardous wastes. Therefore, an ecofriendly and sustainable solution should be established for a circular economy where infinite resources, such as agro-industrial wastes, are fully utilized as substrates in the production of target value-added chemicals. Hereby, recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies and techniques used in the development of microbial cell factories for enhanced production of three-carbon platform chemicals such as lactic acid, propionic acid, and 3-hydroxypropionic acid are discussed. Further developments and future perspectives in the production of these organic acids from agro-industrial wastes from the dairy, sugar, and biodiesel industries are also highlighted to demonstrate the importance of waste-based biorefineries for organic acid production.
- Agro-industrial wastes
- Circular economy
- Metabolic engineering
- Microbial cell factory
- Three-carbon platform chemicals