MFA-net: Object detection for complex X-ray cargo and baggage security imagery

Thanaporn Viriyasaranon, Seung Hoon Chae, Jang Hwan Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Deep convolutional networks have been developed to detect prohibited items for automated inspection of X-ray screening systems in the transport security system. To our knowledge, the existing frameworks were developed to recognize threats using only baggage security X-ray scans. Therefore, the detection accuracy in other domains of security X-ray scans, such as cargo X-ray scans, cannot be ensured. We propose an object detection method for efficiently detecting contraband items in both cargo and baggage for X-ray security scans. The proposed network, MFA-net, consists of three plug-and-play modules, including the multiscale dilated convolutional module, fusion feature pyramid network, and auxiliary point detection head. First, the multiscale dilated convolutional module converts the standard convolution of the detector backbone to a conditional convolution by aggregating the features from multiple dilated convolutions using dynamic feature selection to overcome the object-scale variant issue. Second, the fusion feature pyramid network combines the proposed attention and fusion modules to enhance multiscale object recognition and alleviate the object and occlusion problem. Third, the auxiliary point detection head adopts an auxiliary head to predict the new keypoints of the bounding box to emphasize the localizability without requiring further ground-truth information. We tested the performance of the MFA-net on two large-scale X-ray security image datasets from different domains: a Security Inspection X-ray (SIXray) dataset in the baggage domain and our dataset, named CargoX, in the cargo domain. Moreover, MFA-net outperformed state-of-the-art object detectors in both domains. Thus, adopting the proposed modules can further increase the detection capability of the current object detectors on X-ray security images.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0272961
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number9 September
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was conducted as a part of the research projects of “Development of automatic screening and hybrid detection system for hazardous material detecting in port container” financially (1525012204) supported by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea. This work was also partly supported by the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. CAP-18-03-ETRI). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, publication decision, or manuscript preparation.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2022 Viriyasaranon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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