Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated that persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) at different stages of ripening provided different protective effects against high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced dyslipidemia in rats. In this study, we compared the metabolites profile and gene expressions related to triglyceride (TG)/cholesterol metabolism in vitro and in vivo after treating with persimmon water extracts (PWE) or tannin-enriched persimmon concentrate (TEP). Methods: Primary and secondary metabolites in test materials were determined by GC-TOF/MS, UHPLC-LTQ-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The expression of genes related to TG and cholesterol metabolism were determined by RT-PCR both in HepG2 cells stimulated by oleic acid/palmitic acid and in liver tissues obtained from Wistar rats fed with HFD and PWE at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/d (experiment I) or TEP at 0, 7, 14, and 28 mg/d (experiment II) by oral gavage for 9 weeks. Results: PLS-DA analysis and heatmap analysis demonstrated significantly differential profiling of metabolites of PWE and TEP according to processing of persimmon powder. In vitro, TEP showed similar hypolipidemic effects as PWE, but significantly enhanced hypocholesterolemic effects compared to PWE in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene expression. Consistently, TEP and PWE showed similar hypolipidemic capacity in vivo, but significantly enhanced hypocholesterolemic capacity in terms of SREBP2, HMGCR, and bile salt export pump (BSEP) gene expression. Conclusion: These results suggest that column extraction after hot water extraction may be a good strategy to enhance tannins and long-chain fatty acid amides, which might cause stimulation of hypocholesterolemic actions through downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression and upregulation of LDL receptor gene expression.
- Diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats
- Diospyros kaki Thumb
- Hep G2 cells
- Metabolites profiling