Melting of gold by ultrashort laser pulses: advanced two-temperature modeling and comparison with surface damage experiments

Sergey A. Lizunov, Alexander V. Bulgakov, Eleanor E.B. Campbell, Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The ultrafast-laser-induced solid–liquid phase transition in metals is still not clearly understood and its accurate quantitative description remains a challenge. Here, we systematically investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, the melting of gold by single femto- and picosecond near-infrared laser pulses. Two laser systems with wavelengths of 800 and 1030 nm and pulse durations ranging from 124 fs to 7 ps were used, and the damage and ablation thresholds were determined for each irradiation condition. The theoretical analysis was based on two-temperature modeling. Different expressions for the electron–lattice coupling rate and contribution of ballistic electrons were examined. In addition, the number of free electrons involved in the optical response is suggested to be dependent on the laser intensity and the influence of the fraction of involved electrons on the damage threshold was investigated. Only one combination of modelling parameters was able to describe consistently all the measured damage thresholds. Physical arguments are presented to explain the modeling results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number602
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Dr. J. Bonse for providing the bulk gold target. This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic (Project BIATRI: No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000445). S. A. L. and A. V. B. also acknowledge financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 19-38-90203).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.


  • Ballistic electrons
  • Damage threshold
  • Electron–lattice coupling rate
  • Gold
  • Optical response
  • Two-temperature model
  • Ultrashort laser pulses


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