The increase in the size of the global population increases the food and energy demand, making the use of pesticides in agricultural and livestock industries unavoidable. Exposure to pesticides can be toxic to the non-target species, such as humans, wildlife, and livestock, in addition to the target organisms. Various chemicals are used in the livestock industry to control harmful organisms, such as insects, weeds, and parasites. Pigs are one of the most important food sources for humans. In addition, pigs can be used as promising models for assessing the risk of absorption of environmental pollutants through the skin and oral exposure since they are physiologically similar to humans. Exposure to numerous environmental pollutants, such as mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals, has been reported to adversely affect growth, fertility, and endocrine homeostasis in pigs. Various pesticides have been observed in porcine tissues, blood, urine, and processed foods; however, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of their effects on porcine health. This review provides a comprehensive description of the characteristics of pesticides that pigs can be exposed to and how their exposure affects porcine reproductive function, intestinal health, and endocrine homeostasis in vivo and in vitro.
- Oxidative stress