An ARMA(p, q) process observed with an ARMA(c, d) error has an ARMA (p + c, k) representation with k = max(c + q, p + d) whose parameters satisfy some nonlinear constraints. Identification of the model is discussed. We develop Newton-Raphson estimators for the ARMA(p + c, k) process which take advantage of the information contained in the nonlinear restrictions. Explicit expressions for the derivatives of the restrictions are derived.
- ARMA error
- Maximum likelihood estimation
- Newton-Raphson procedure