Environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) is known to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal exposure to ETS and oxidative stress for neonates, as well as the effect of maternal genetic polymorphisms, glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and GSTT1, on this relationship. We used the radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary concentration of cotinine in 266 pregnant women who denied smoking cigarettes during pregnancy and in their singleton babies. In addition, the urinary concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also extracted DNA from whole blood obtained from the mothers and then conducted polymerase chain reaction on the samples to determine the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. The maternal cotinine concentration was found to be significantly associated with the fetal cotinine concentration, particularly for mothers whose urine cotinine concentrations were above 120 μg/g cr (p < 0.01). The fetal urine cotinine concentration was also found to be significantly associated with the fetal urine MDA concentration (p < 0.01). When the null type maternal GSTM1 or the wild type GSTT1 was present, the maternal oxidative stress level increased significantly as the maternal continine concentration increased (MDA: p < 0.01; 8-OH-dG: p < 0.01). No significant relationships were found between maternal cotinine and fetal oxidative stress markers, however, the fetal MDA levels increased significantly as fetal cotinine levels increased. These results suggest that the maternal exposure to ETS affects the fetal urine cotinine concentration and induces production of maternal oxidative stress. In addition, maternal genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 may modify the oxidative stress by maternal exposure to ETS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Eco-technopia 21 project of Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology.
- Environmental tobacco smoking
- Oxidative stress