A strategy is reported to improve the detection limits of current giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensors by augmenting the effective magnetic moment that the magnetic tags on the biosensors can exert. Magnetic supercluster particles (MSPs), each of which consists of ~ 1000 superparamagnetic cores, are prepared by a wet-chemical technique and are utilized to improve the limit of detection of GMR biosensors down to 17.6 zmol for biotin as a target molecule. This value is more than four orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional colorimetric assay performed using the same set of reagents except for the signal transducer. The applicability of MSPs in immunoassay is further demonstrated by simultaneously detecting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a duplex assay format. MSPs outperform commercially available magnetic nanoparticles in terms of signal intensity and detection limit. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03024231, NRF-2018R1D1A1B07050979, NRF-2019M3C1B8090804, NRF-2020R1C1C1005416, NRF-2022R1A2C1003527). S.X.W. acknowledges support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant R01CA25784301.
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.
- Giant magnetoresistance
- Magnetic nanoparticles
- Supercluster particles