Lymphoma development of simultaneously combined exposure to two radiofrequency signals in AKR/J mice

Hae June Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Jae Seon Lee, Soo Yong Choi, Tae Hong Kim, Jeong Ki Pack, Hyung Do Choi, Nam Kim, Yun Sil Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


There are public concerns regarding possible carcinogenic or cancer-promoting effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) because of the extensive use of wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices in daily life. However, so far it is unclear if non-thermal exposure of single EMF exposure in animal studies has a direct influence on carcinogenesis. Here, carcinogenic effects of combined signal RF-EMFs on AKR/J mice, which were used for the lymphoma animal model, were investigated. Six-week-old AKR/J mice were simultaneously exposed to two types of RF signals: single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). AKR/J mice were exposed to combined RF-EMFs for 45min/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 42 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA and WCDMA fields was 2.0W/kg each, 4.0W/kg in total. When we examined final survival, lymphoma incidence, and splenomegaly incidence, no differences were found between sham- and RF-exposed mice. However, occurrence of metastasis infiltration to the brain in lymphoma-bearing mice was significantly different in RF-exposed mice when compared to sham-exposed mice, even though no consistent correlation (increase or decrease) was observed between male and female mice. However, infiltration occurrence to liver, lung, and spleen was not different between the groups. From the results, we suggested that simultaneous exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF-EMFs did not affect lymphoma development in AKR/J mice. Bioelectromagnetics 32:485-492, 2011.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-492
Number of pages8
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2011


  • AKR/J mice
  • CDMA
  • Combined exposure
  • Lymphoma incidence


Dive into the research topics of 'Lymphoma development of simultaneously combined exposure to two radiofrequency signals in AKR/J mice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this