Low heavy metal bioavailability in soil at contaminated Korean shooting sites

Jin Sung Park, Yoon Young Chang, Bumhan Bae, Ok Kyung Kim, Kyung Suk Cho, In Sook Lee

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3 Scopus citations


The bioavailability of metals at eight military shooting ranges in the Kyungkido and Kangwondo districts in Korea was examined through measurements of the metal content of the tissues of plants growing at the sites. Analysis of the metals in soil samples showed that only a small fraction of the total metal in the soil was soluble (soluble Cd, 0.01-0.43 mg/kg; soluble Cu, 1.63-10.05 mg/kg; soluble Pb, 0.01-414.46 mg/kg; and soluble Zn, 0.01-0.32 mg/kg). Correlation analyses of the levels of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in soil samples and in 14 plant species collected near the sites showed that plant concentrations of Cd and Pb (shoot and root) were significantly correlated to the levels of Cd and Pb in the soil, whereas the concentrations of Cu and Zn in shoot and root tissue showed no correlation with the concentrations of metal in soil. Moreover, no direct relationship was found between the soil microbial respiration activity and soil metal concentration. These results indicate that there are only small amounts of bioavailable metal in the soil at the military shooting ranges studied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285-1297
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Total metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the soils was determined using a HCl digestion method. Ten grams of air-dried soil (<0.5 mm) was digested with 50 mL of 0.1 N HCl at 30°C for at least 1 h. The heavy metal content of each extract was determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS analysis 100, Perkin Elmer). The system was calibrated using certified reference materials (MESS-2: Marine Sediment) from the National Research Council of Canada (NRS-CNRC). To analyze for exchangeab le metals (Cd, Cu, Pb , and Zn), 1 g of dried soil was extracted by 1 N ammonium acetate for 1 h. To analyze for soluble metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn), 2.5 g of soil was extracted by 0.01 M KNO3 for 2 h. The total concentrations of exchangeable and dissolved metals were determined using a graphite-furnace AAS and a flame AAS.


  • Bioavailability
  • Bioavailable metal
  • Cd
  • Cu
  • Military shooting range
  • Pb
  • Soil
  • Zn


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