Longitudinal teaching of evidence-based decision making

Beth A. Martin, Connie K. Kraus, Su Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective. To determine whether longitudinal design and delivery of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) content was effective in increasing students' knowledge, skills, and confidence as they progressed through a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. Three student cohort swere followed from 2005 to 2009(n=367), as they learned about EBDM through lectures, actively researching case-based questions, and researching and writing answers to therapy-based questions generated in practice settings. Assessment. Longitudinal evaluations included repeated multiple-choice examinations, confidence surveys, and written answers to practice-based questions (clinical inquiries). Students' knowledge and perception of EBDM principles increased over each of the 3 years. Students' self-efficacy (10-items, p< 0. 0001) and perceived skills (7-items, p< 0. 0001) in applying EBDM skills to answer practice-based questions also increased. Graded clinical inquiries verified that students performed satisfactorily in the final 2 years of the program. Conclusions. This study demonstrated a successful integration of EBDM throughout the curriculum. EBDM can effectively be taught by repetition, use of real examples, and provision of feedback.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2012


  • Curriculum
  • Evidence-based decision making
  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Longitudinal evaluation


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