Background and study aims: The clinical impact of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical impact of VCE in patients with OGIB using a nationwide registry. Patients and methods: Data from 305 patients who underwent VCE for OGIB from 13 hospitals in Korea between January 2006 and March 2009 were analyzed. Prospectively collected VCE registry data were reviewed, and follow-up data were collected by chart review and telephone interviews with patients. Multivariate regression analyses using hazard ratios (HR) were performed to determine risk factors for rebleeding. Results: Significant findings were detected in 157 patients (51.5 %). After VCE, interventional treatment was performed in 36 patients (11.8 %). The overall rebleeding rate was 19.0 % during a mean (± SD) follow-up of 38.7 ± 26.4 months. Rebleeding rate did not differ by positive VCE results or application of interventional treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that angiodysplasia (HR 1.82; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.04 - 3.20; P = 0.037) and duration of OGIB > 3 months (HR 1.64; 95 %CI 1.10 - 2.46; P = 0.016) were independent prognostic factors associated with rebleeding. In a subgroup analysis of patients taking anticoagulants, patients who discontinued drugs after VCE showed a lower rebleeding rate than those who did not discontinue this therapy (P = 0.019). Conclusions: VCE did not have a significant impact on the long-term outcome of patients with OGIB. Patients with angiodysplasia on VCE or OGIB > 3 months need to be closely followed even after interventional treatment. In patients who are taking anticoagulants, discontinuation of drugs is necessary in order to lower the risk of rebleeding.