Objectives: Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death among older patients; however, little is known about the long-term mortality in aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term mortality and its associated factors in patients with aspiration pneumonia. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants: In total, 550 patients with aspiration pneumonia (median age: 78.0 years, 66.4% male) with compatible clinical symptoms and chest computed tomography images were enrolled at a single tertiary center from 2006 to 2016. Measures: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality rates were evaluated for all patients. The prognostic factors for 1-year and 5-year mortality were also evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: A total of 441 (80.2%) patients died during a median follow-up of 50.7 weeks. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality rates were 49.0%, 67.1%, and 76.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified 5 risk factors for 1-year mortality of male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 1.533, P =.003], low body mass index (HR 0.934, P =.002), hypoalbuminemia, anemia (0.973, P =.032), and mechanical ventilation (HR 2.052, P <.001), which were also independent prognostic factors for 5-year mortality. During the follow-up period, 133 (24.2%) patients experienced recurrent aspiration pneumonia. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant differences in survival curves between patients with single and recurrent aspiration pneumonia (P =.371). Conclusions/Implications: Long-term prognosis of aspiration pneumonia was poor as a result of underlying morbidity instead of the aspiration pneumonia itself. Our findings suggest that prognostic indices for patients with aspiration pneumonia including the patient's underlying conditions should be devised.
|Journal||Journal of the American Medical Directors Association|
|State||Published - Sep 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (grant number NRF-2018R1C1B6004282). We express our deep gratitude to the Ewha Clinical Trial Centers for their valuable advice in the statistical analysis.
© 2019 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine
- Aspiration pneumonia
- recurrent aspiration