Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for in vivo RNA delivery and their breakthrough technology for future applications

Michaela Jeong, Yeji Lee, Jeongeun Park, Hyein Jung, Hyukjin Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


RNA therapeutics show a significant breakthrough for the treatment of otherwise incurable diseases and genetic disorders by regulating disease-related gene expression. The successful development of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines further emphasizes the potential of RNA therapeutics in the prevention of infectious diseases as well as in the treatment of chronic diseases. However, the efficient delivery of RNA into cells remains a challenge, and nanoparticle delivery systems such as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are necessary to fully realize the potential of RNA therapeutics. While LNPs provide a highly efficient platform for the in vivo delivery of RNA by overcoming various biological barriers, several challenges remain to be resolved for further development and regulatory approval. These include a lack of targeted delivery to extrahepatic organs and a gradual loss of therapeutic potency with repeated doses. In this review, we highlight the fundamental aspects of LNPs and their uses in the development of novel RNA therapeutics. Recent advances in LNP-based therapeutics and preclinical/clinical studies are overviewed. Lastly, we discuss the current limitations of LNPs and introduce breakthrough technologies that might overcome these challenges in future applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114990
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Extrahepatic delivery
  • RNA therapeutics
  • Repeated dose
  • lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)


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