Background and Objectives : Previous studies have demonstrated that adipokines can have positive and/or negative effects on vascular function. In this study, we attempted to characterize the association of adipokines with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal women. Subjects and Methods : Noninvasive pulse wave analysis coupled with provocative pharmacological testing with salbutamol was used to measure endothelium- dependent vasodilation in 60 healthy premenopausal women [37 obese women; body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2, 23 age-matched non-obese women; BMI<25 kg/m2]. The lipid profile, fasting insulin, glucose, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in each patient were assessed via standard laboratory techniques, and plasma concentrations of various adipokines, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and TNF-α, were measured via enzyme immunoassays. Results : In the obese group, higher leptin concentrations were significantly associated with impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (r=-0.371, p=0.005). This association remained significant, even after adjustment for other risk factors (β3=-0.39, p=0.006). However, we determined that there was no significant correlation between endothelium-dependent vasodilation and these variables in the obese group and the control group. Conclusion : Increased plasma concentration of leptin was associated with impairment in endothelial function in obese premenopausal women, regardless of the metabolic and inflammatory disturbances associated with obesity.