Learned FBF: Learning-Based Functional Bloom Filter for Key-Value Storage

Hayoung Byun, Hyesook Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


As a challenging attempt to replace a traditional data structure with a learned model, this paper proposes a learned functional Bloom filter (L-FBF) for a key-value storage. The learned model in the proposed L-FBF learns the characteristics and the distribution of given data and classifies each input. It is shown through theoretical analysis that the L-FBF provides a lower search failure rate than a single FBF in the same memory size, while providing the same semantic guarantees. For model training, character-level neural networks are used with pretrained embeddings. In experiments, four types of different character-level neural networks are trained: a single gated recurrent unit (GRU), two GRUs, a single long short-term memory (LSTM), and a single one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN). Experimental results prove the validity of theoretical results, and show that the L-FBF reduces the search failures by 82.8% to 83.9% when compared with a single FBF under the same amount of memory used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1928-1938
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1968-2012 IEEE.


  • Key-value storage
  • deep learning
  • functional Bloom filter
  • search failure


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