In recent years, there have been rapid advances in the synthesis of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) for use in solar cells, light emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. These compounds have a set of intriguing optical, excitonic, and charge transport properties, including outstanding photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and tunable optical band gap. However, the necessary inclusion of lead, a toxic element, raises a critical concern for future commercial development. To address the toxicity issue, intense recent research effort has been devoted to developing lead-free halide perovskite (LFHP) NCs. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of currently explored LFHP NCs with an emphasis on their crystal structures, synthesis, optical properties, and environmental stabilities (e.g., UV, heat, and moisture resistance). In addition, strategies for enhancing optical properties and stabilities of LFHP NCs as well as the state-of-the-art applications are discussed. With the perspective of their properties and current challenges, we provide an outlook for future directions in this rapidly evolving field to achieve high-quality LFHP NCs for a broader range of fundamental research and practical applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge the support from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0308602), the National Science Foundation (CBET 1803495, CMMI 1914713), China Scholarship Council (CSC), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21674024, 21320102005), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFA0203301), and the Senior Visiting Scholarship of State Key Laboratory, Fudan University.
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- lead-free perovskites
- optical properties